Interplay Entertainment Corp. is an American video game developer and publisher based in Los Angeles. The company was founded in 1983 as Interplay Productions by developers Brian Fargo, Jay Patel, Troy Worrell, and Rebecca Heineman, as well as investor Chris Wells. As a developer, Interplay is best known as the creator of the Fallout series and as a publisher for the Baldur's Gate and Descent series.
Prior to Interplay, the company's founding developers—Brian Fargo, Troy Worrell, Jay Patel, and Rebecca Heineman—worked for Boone Corporation, a video game developer based in California. When Boone eventually folded, the four got together with investor Chris Wells and, believing they could create a company that was better than Boone, founded Interplay in October 1983. The first projects were non-original and consisted of software conversions and even some military work for Loral Corporation. After negotiations with Activision, Interplay entered a US$100,000 contract to produce three illustrated text adventures for them. Published in 1984, Mindshadow is loosely based on Robert Ludlum's Bourne Identity while The Tracer Sanction puts the player in the role of an interplanetary secret agent. Borrowed Time which features a script by Arnie Katz' Subway Software followed in 1985. These adventures built upon work previously done by Fargo: his first game was the 1981-published Demon's Forge.
The same year, Interplay Productions, then contracted out by Electronic Arts, ported EA's Racing Destruction Set to the Atari 8-bit family of computers. The conversion, entirely coded by Rebecca Heineman, was released in 1986 via Electronic Arts for the United States and Ariolasoft for the European market.
Interplay's parser was developed by Fargo and an associate and in one version understands about 250 nouns and 200 verbs as well as prepositions and indirect objects. In 1986, Tass Times in Tonetown followed. Interplay made a name for itself as a quality developer of role-playing video games with the three-part series The Bard's Tale (1985–1988), critically acclaimed Wasteland (1988) and Dragon Wars (1989). All of them were published by Electronic Arts.
Interplay started publishing its own games, starting with Neuromancer and Battle Chess, in 1988, and then moved on to publish and distribute games from other companies, while continuing internal game development. In 1995, Interplay published the hit game Descent, developed by startup Parallax Software. Interplay published several Star Trek video games, including Star Trek: 25th Anniversary for computers and for Nintendo Entertainment System and Star Trek: Judgment Rites. These games had later CD-ROM editions released with the original Star Trek cast providing voices. Interplay also published Starfleet Academy and Klingon Academy games, and Starfleet Command series, beginning with Star Trek: Starfleet Command. Another game, Star Trek: Secret of Vulcan Fury, was in development in the late 1990s but was never completed and much of its staff laid off due to budgetary cuts prompted by various factors. In 1995, after several years of delays, Interplay finally published its role-playing game Stonekeep. Other PC games released during the mid- to late 1990s included Carmageddon, Fragile Allegiance, Hardwar and Redneck Rampage.
In 1997, Interplay developed and released Fallout, a successful and critically acclaimed role-playing video game set in a retro-futuristic post-apocalyptic setting. Black Isle Studios, a newly created in-house developer, followed with the sequel, Fallout 2, in 1998. Another successful subsequent Interplay franchise was Baldur's Gate, a Dungeons & Dragons game that was developed by BioWare and which spawned a successful expansion, sequel and spin-off series. The spin-off series started with Baldur's Gate: Dark Alliance; the game's success forged a sequel as well. Aside from Dark Alliance, Interplay published a few notable console series such as Loaded and the fighting game series ClayFighter and the games by Shiny Entertainment, MDK and Wild 9.
Interplay Entertainment By 1998, the financial situation at Interplay was dire and the company was in bankruptcy court. To avert bankruptcy, Interplay went public on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the name Interplay Entertainment.
Interplay continued to endure losses under Brian Fargo due to increased competition, less than stellar returns on Interplay's sports division and the lack of console titles. This forced Interplay to seek additional funding two years later with an investment from Titus Software, a Paris-based game company. Titus agreed to invest 25 million dollars in Interplay and a few months later this was followed up by an additional 10 million investment. Interplay also acquired a 49.9% ownership in publisher Virgin Interactive in February 1999. With this, Interplay would be able to distribute Virgin's games in North America, while Virgin would distribute Interplay's games in Europe.
By 2001, Titus Interactive completed its acquisition of majority control of Interplay. Immediately afterwards, they shed most of Interplay's publisher functions and signed a long-term agreement under which Vivendi Universal Games would distribute Interplay's games. Eventually, Interplay founder Brian Fargo departed at the start of 2002 to found InXile Entertainment as Fargo's plan to change Interplay's main focus from PC gaming to console gaming failed. Herve Caen took over the role of CEO to perform triage and made several unpopular but arguably necessary decisions to cancel various projects, in order to save the company. Interplay sold Shiny Entertainment to Infogrames and several game properties while closing BlueSky Software. Due to a low share price, Interplay's shares were delisted from the NASDAQ in 2002 and now trade on the over the counter (OTC) market. Interplay's European operations were completely sold to Titus Interactive, which included their share of Virgin Interactive, which Titus renamed to Avalon Interactive in August 2003. With this, Titus had complete control over publishing and distributing Interplay's games in Europe under the Avalon Interactive name.
On September 29, 2003, Interplay announced it had cancelled its distribution deal with Vivendi Universal Games, due to Vivendi suing them for alleged breaches of the working agreement and failure of payment. On December 8, 2003, Interplay laid off the entire Black Isle Studios staff. The company was also involved in issues including debt. Feargus Urquhart later left Black Isle Studios and Interplay suffered a loss of US$20 million in that year.
In 2005, Titus Interactive, S.A. filed for bankruptcy and closed down all their assets parts of which Interplay acquired. The bankruptcy of Titus led to Interplay being burdened with debt. Interplay faced bankruptcy again and was brought to bankruptcy court in 2006. To pay off creditors, the company altered its licensing agreement with Bethesda Software and then sold the Fallout IP to Bethesda Softworks in 2007.
In September 2008, several games from Interplay's catalog were re-released on the digital distribution service GOG.com after being unavailable in retail distribution for years
In August 2013, Interplay acquired the remaining rights to the FreeSpace franchise for $7,500 after THQ went to bankruptcy court.
In September 2016, Interplay announced its intent to sell off its intellectual property, composed of 70 games, working together with Wedbush Securities.
Interplay is co-publishing with 3D Realms, a remaster of Xatrix Entertainment's 1999 game Kingpin: Life of Crime which was originally published by Interplay. Known as Kingpin: Reloaded, the game will be developed by Slipgate Ironworks. This was announced on January 17, 2020.
Interplay via Black Isle Studios released a remaster of Baldur's Gate: Dark Alliance in 2021.
In 2003 and 2004 Snowblind Studios and Interplay Entertainment were engaged in a dispute regarding the Dark Alliance Engine for Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel, Baldur's Gate: Dark Alliance II, and the GameCube version of the original Dark Alliance. The dispute was resolved and Interplay would be allowed to work with materials already using the Dark Alliance Engine.
Bethesda Softworks sued Interplay in 2009, regarding the Fallout Online license and selling of Fallout Trilogy and sought an injunction to stop development of Fallout Online and sales of Fallout Trilogy. After several trials spanning almost three years, and in exchange for $2 million dollars, Interplay gave Bethesda the full rights for Fallout Online. Interplay's rights to sell and merchandise Fallout, Fallout 2 and Fallout Tactics: Brotherhood of Steel expired on December 31, 2013.
In 2010, TopWare Interactive revealed that they were developing Battle vs. Chess to be published by SouthPeak Games. Interplay sued them and won an injunction to stop sales in the United States. In 2012, Interplay won the case via default and a settlement for $200,000 plus interest was agreed upon on November 15, 2012.
- Interplay Discovery; a subdivision founded in 2010 aimed at publishing games made by independent video game developers.
- Black Isle Studios in Orange County, California, started in 1996.
- 14 Degrees East, the strategy division of Interplay, located in Beverly Hills and founded in 1999.
- BlueSky Software in California, started in 1988, closed in 2001.
- Brainstorm in Irvine, California.
- Digital Mayhem, an Interplay development studio that ported Giants: Citizen Kabuto to the PS2 and developed Run Like Hell.
- Interplay Films, a division of Interplay Entertainment, was formed in 1998 and was supposed to develop seven of the company's most popular video game titles into movies, including Descent, Redneck Rampage and Fallout. Its president was Tom Reed.
- Interplay Sports located in Beverly Hills was the internal sports division at Interplay. The division was founded in 1995 as VR Sports, but changed its name in 1998.
- MacPlay, ported games to Mac OS from 1990–1997. The brand was licensed to United Developers, LLC in 2000.
- Shiny Entertainment in Laguna Beach, California, founded in 1993, acquired in 1995, sold to Atari in 2002. It later merged with The Collective to form Double Helix Games in 2007.
- Tantrum Entertainment
All Interplay Games
|Alone in the Dark||1992||3DO, Arc, DOS, FMT, Mac, PC98||Infogrames.|
|Another World||1991||3DO, Ami, AppGS, DOS, Droid, iOS, Mac, SMD, SNES, ST, Sym, Win||US, an action-adventure game, developed by Delphine Software.|
|Atomic Bomberman||1997||Win||Licensed by Hudson Soft|
|The Adventures of Rad Gravity||1990||NES|
|Baldurs Gate||1998||Mac, Win||Role-playing video game developed by BioWare.|
|Baldurs Gate: Tales of the Sword Coast||1999||Mac, Win||Role-playing video game developed by BioWare.|
|Baldurs Gate II: Shadows of Amn||2000||Mac, Win||Role-playing video game developed by BioWare.|
|Baldurs Gate II: Throne of Bhaal||2001||Mac, Win||Role-playing video game developed by BioWare.|
|Baldurs Gate: Dark Alliance||2001||Xbox, PS2, GBA, GCN||Role-playing video game originally developed by Snowblind Studios.|
|Baldurs Gate: Dark Alliance II||2004||Xbox, PS2||Role-playing video game developed by Black Isle Studios.|
|Bards Tale||1985||Ami, CPC, AppII, AppGS, C64, DOS, Mac, NES, PC98, ST, ZX||A ground-breaking role-playing video game and huge hit for Interplay, published by Electronic Arts.|
|The Bards Tale II: The Destiny Knight||1986||Ami, AppII, AppGS, C64, DOS, PC98,||Role-playing video game developed by Interplay, published by Electronic Arts.|
|Battle Arena Toshinden 2||1998||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft. Also published by Fujitsu.|
|Battle Chess||1988||3DO, Ami, Arc, AppGS, AppII, C64, DOS, FMT, Mac, NES, PC98, ST, Win, X68K||A variant of chess, where pieces battle each other when capturing. A very successful title for Interplay.|
|Battle Chess II: Chinese Chess||1991||DOS||Sequel to Battle Chess|
|Battle Chess 4000||1991||DOS|
|Battle Chess: Game of Kings||2015||Win||Released on Steam Early Access on March 17, 2014.|
|Battlecruiser 3000AD v2.0||1998||Win||This game is infamous for its protracted development history and then lacking gameplay.|
|Beat the House 2||1997||Win||A casino simulation.
|Blackthorne||1994||DOS, GBA, Mac, PC98, S32X, SNES||A platformer by Blizzard Entertainment.|
|Blood & Magic||1996||DOS, Win||A real-time strategy game based on Dungeons & Dragons developed by Tachyon Studios.|
|Boogerman||1995||SMD, SNES, Virtual Console||side-scrolling Action platformer|action platform game.|
|Borrowed Time||1985||C64, Ami, App, ST, Mac, DOS||graphical text adventure developed by Interplay and published by Activision.|
|Bust-A-Move 4||2000||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft.|
|Buzz Aldrins Race Into Space||1993||DOS||A space program management game.|
|Carmageddon||1997||DOS, Mac PS1, N64, GBC, iOS, Droid, Win||A violent racing game where points are scored by hitting and running over innocent bystanders as well as opponents.|
|Carmageddon II||1998||GBC, Mac, N64, PS1, Win||A sequel to the violent original, Carmageddon.|
|Casper||1996||Sega Saturn, 3DO, PlayStation, Game Boy Color||film of the same name.|
|Castles||1991||Ami, DOS, ST|
|Castles II: Siege and Conquest||1991||Ami32, DOS, Mac|
|Caesars Palace 2000||2000||PS1, Dreamcast, Win||Published by Interplay, developed by Runecraft|
|Clayfighter||1993||SMD, SNES, Wii, NDSi|
|Clayfighter 63 1/3||1997||N64|
|Clayfighter: The Sculptors Cut||1998||N64||Released as a Blockbuster Video rental exclusive|
|Conquest of the New World||1996||DOS, Mac|
|Crazy Cars: Hit the Road||2012||Win, Droid, iOS||A racing video game developed by Little World Entertainment and published by Microïds.|
|Crazy Cats Love||2011||iOS||A puzzle game.|
|Cyberia||1994||3DO, DOS, PS1, Sat|
|Darius Gaiden||1998||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft|
|Death and the Fly||2011||Win||A side-scrolling puzzle-platform game developed by Independent Programmist Group (PIG) and published under the label Interplay Discovery.|
|Descent||1994||DOS, Mac, Arc, PS1, Win||An action game developed by Parallax Software|
|Descent II||1996||DOS, Mac, Arc, PS1, Win||An action game developed by Parallax Software|
|Descent 3||1999||Mac, Win, Linux||An action game developed by Outrage Entertainment|
|Descent: FreeSpace – The Great War||1998||Ami, Win||Volition. The sequel is Freespace 2.|
|Descent to Undermountain||1998||DOS, Win||Based on the Dungeons & Dragons setting of Undermountain in the Forgotten Realms.|
|Die by the Sword||1998||Win|
|Die by the Sword: Limb from Limb||1998||Win|
|Draconus: Cult of the Wyrm||2000||DC|
|Dragon Dice||1997||PC||An action/fantasy game based on the Dragon Dice game by TSR.|
|Dragon Wars||1989||Ami, AppGS, AppII, C64, DOS, NES, PC98, X68K||The Bards Tale game engine|
|Dungeon Master II||1993||Amiga, DOS, PC98, Mac, SCD||Dungeon Master|
|Earth 2140||1997||Ami, DOS, Mac||Published by Interplay in North America|
|Earthworm Jim||1994||SMD, SNES, SCD, GBC, GG, GBA, DOS, SMS, iOS, WIN, Wii, NDS, PS3, X360||A version of EWJ was released on Wiiware in 2009 and on DSiware in 2010|
|Earthworm Jim 2||1995||SMD, SNES, GBA, DOS, Sat, PS1, Wii, WIN||Nintendo Wiiware version was released in 2009.|
|Earthworm Jim 3D||1999||N64, Win||Developed by VIS Entertainment.|
|Earthworm Jim: Menace 2 the Galaxy||1999||GB, GBC||Developed by David A. Palmer Productions. Published by Crave Entertainment.|
|Earthworm Jim HD||2010||XBLA, PSN, iOS||the original game. Developed Gameloft and co-published by Gameloft and Microsoft Studios.|
|Evolva||2000||Win||Developed by Computer Artworks|
|Fallout||1997||DOS, Mac, Win||A post-apocalyptic role-playing video game.|
|Fallout 2||1998||DOS, Mac, Win||A post-apocalyptic role-playing video game, internally developed by Black Isle Studios.|
|Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel||2004||PS2, Xbox|
|Fallout Tactics: Brotherhood of Steel||2001||Win||turn-based/Real-time tactics|real-time tactical role-playing game, developed by Micro Forté and co-published with 14 Degrees East.|
|Fatal Fury 3: Road to the Final Victory||1998||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft|
|The Forgotten Realms Archives||1997||DOS, Win||A compilation of several Advanced Dungeons & Dragons games by Strategic Simulations, Inc.|
|FreeSpace 2||1999||AmigaOS 4, Win||Volition|
|Fragile Allegiance||1996||DOS, Win||Realtime strategy game set in space
|Future Wars||1990||Ami, DOS, ST|
|Gekido||2000||PS1||A beatem up published by Interplay|
|Giants: Citizen Kabuto||2000||Mac, PS2, Win|
|Hardwar||1998||Win||Space combat game|
|Heart of Darkness||1998||Win, PS1|
|Heart of the Alien: Out of this World Parts I and II||1994||SCD||A platformer by Interplay Entertainment and Delphine Software. Developed by Virgin Interactive|
|Hostile Waters: Antaeus Rising||2001||Win|
|Icewind Dale||2000||Mac, Win||Role-playing video game, internally developed by Black Isle Studios.|
|Icewind Dale II||2002||Win||Role-playing video game, internally developed by Black Isle Studios.|
|International Rally Championship||1997||Win||Racing game, developed by Magnetic Fields (computer game developer)|Magnetic Fields.|
|Interplay Sports Baseball Edition 2000||1999||PS1, Win|
|J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Vol. I||1990||Ami, DOS, FMT, PC98|
|J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Vol. I||1994||SNES|
|J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Vol. II: The Two Towers||1992||DOS, FMT, PC98|
|Jetfighter III||1997||DOS||Flight combat simulator, developed by Mission Studios.|
|Jetfighter: Full Burn||1998||Win||Flight combat simulator, developed by Mission Studios.|
|Kingpin: Life of Crime||1999||Win, Linux||Developed by Xatrix|
|Kingpin: Reloaded||2021||Win, NS, PS4, XBO||Published by Interplay & 3D Realms.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>|
|Learn to Program BASIC||1998||Mac, Win|
|Legendary Wars: T-Rex Rumble||2010||NDSi, iOS||A real-time strategy video game, internally developed.|
|Lionheart: Legacy of the Crusader||2003||Win||A role-playing video game, developed by Reflexive Entertainment|
|The Lost Vikings||1992||Ami, Ami32, DOS, GBA, SMD, SNES||Developed by Blizzard Entertainment|
|The Lost Vikings 2||1997||SNES, Win, Sat, PS1||A 32-bit enhanced version of The Lost Vikings II was developed for the Sega Saturn, PlayStation and PC, known in the United States as Norse By Norsewest: Return of the Lost Vikings|
|Mario Teaches Typing||1991||DOS, Mac, Win||Licensed by Nintendo|
|Mario Teaches Typing 2||1997||DOS, Mac, Win||Licensed by Nintendo|
|Marios Game Gallery||1995||DOS, Mac, Win||Licensed by Nintendo|
|M.A.X.: Mechanized Assault & Exploration||1996||DOS, Win|
|M.A.X.: Mechanized Assault & Exploration 2||1998||DOS, Win||A turn-based strategy game|
|Metropolis Card Club||2001||Win|
|MDK||1997||DOS, Mac, PS1, Win|
|MDK2||2000||DC, PS2, Wii, Win, WiiWare||A third-person shooter video game developed by BioWare. The WiiWare release was developed by Beamdog.|
|MDK2 HD||2011||Win||the original game. Developed by Beamdog#Overhaul Games|Overhaul Games.|
|Mindshadow||1984||C64, Ami, App, ATR, ST, CPC, C64, Mac, ZX, DOS||Published by Activision.|
|Mummy: Tomb of the Pharaoh||1996||Mac, Win|
|Neuromancer||1988||Ami, AppII, AppGS, C64, DOS||Action/adventure game, internally developed|
|Off-Road Redneck Racing||2001||Win||Spinoff of the Redneck Rampage series|
|Of Light and Darkness: The Prophecy||1998||Win|
|Pinball Yeah!||2010||Win, iOS||A pinball video game developed by CodeRunners and published under the label Interplay Discovery.|
|Poker Night with David Sklansky||1999||Win|
|Puzzle Bobble||1996||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft. Oddly uses the Puzzle Bobble name in North America when other Puzzle Bobble games were released as Bust-A-Move there.|
|Puzzle Bobble 2||1997||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft. Contains the extra content from Puzzle Bobble 2X. Oddly uses the Puzzle Bobble name in North America when other Puzzle Bobble games were released as Bust-A-Move there.|
|Radical Psycho Machine Racing||1991||SNES||Developed by Silicon & Synapse|
|Raiden II||1997||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft|
|Realms of the Haunting||1996||DOS, Win||Action-adventure game, developed by Gremlin Interactive|
|Redneck Deer Huntin||1997||Win||Spinoff of the Redneck Rampage series|
|Redneck Rampage||1997||DOS, Win, Mac||Xatrix|
|Redneck Rampage Rides Again||1998||DOS, Win||Xatrix|
|Redneck Rampage: Suckin Grits on Route 66||1998||DOS||Published by Interplay|
|1996||DOS, PS1, PSN|
|Renegade Racers||1999||PS1, Win|
|Rock N Roll Racing||1993||GBA, Gen, SNES||Silicon & Synapse who would later be known as Blizzard|
|Rock & Roll Racing 2: Red Asphalt||1998||PS1||Titled Red Asphalt in North America|
|Run Like Hell (RLH)||2002||PS2, Xbox||Developed by Digital Mayhem|
|Russian 6 Pack||1993||DOS||"Six Challenging Games From Russia"|
|Sacrifice||2000||Mac, Win||Developed by Shiny Entertainment|
|Samurai Shodown 2||2000||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft|
|Shattered Steel||1996||DOS, Mac||Developed by BioWare and published by Interplay|
|SimCity Enhanced||1993||DOS, Mac||Developed by Maxis|
|Soulbringer||2000||Win||Developed by Infogrames|
|Star Reach||1994||DOS||Also known as Space Federation|
|Star Trek: 25th Anniversary||1992||Ami, DOS, Mac|
|Star Trek: 25th Anniversary||1992||NES||Published by Ultra Games in the US, and Konami in Europe.|
|Star Trek: 25th Anniversary||1992||GB||Produced by Interplay, developed by Visual Concepts, published by Ultra Games.|
|Star Trek: Judgment Rites||1993||DOS, Mac|
|Star Trek: Klingon Academy||2000||Win|
|Star Trek: New Worlds||2000||Win|
|Star Trek: Pinball||1998||DOS|
|Star Trek: Starfleet Academy||1997||Mac, Win|
|Star Trek: Starfleet Academy: Chekovs Lost Missions||Win|
|Star Trek: Starfleet Command||1999||Win|
|Star Trek: Starfleet Command II: Empires At War||2000||Win|
|Star Trek: Starfleet Command II: Orion Pirates||2001||Win|
|Stonekeep||1995||DOS, Win||Role-playing video game, internally developed|
|Stonekeep: Bones of the Ancestors||2012||WiiWare||Role-playing video game, Developed by Alpine Studios|
|Super Castles||1994||SNES||Super Famicom (the Japanese name for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System)|
|Swords and Serpents||1990||NES||Developed by Interplay|
|Tass Times in Tonetown||1986||Ami, AppII, AppGS, C64, Mac, ST, DOS||graphical text adventure developed by Interplay and Brainwave Creations, and published by Activision.|
|Total Recall||1990||NES||Licensed and controlled for the U. S. and Canada by Acclaim Entertainment, Inc.|
|Tommy Tronic||2010||Win||A platform video game developed by Oasis Games and published under the label Interplay Discovery.|
|The Tracer Sanction||1984||AppII, C64, DOS||graphical text adventure developed by Interplay and published by Activision.|
|Trog!||1991||NES||Bally Midway Mfg Co.. Produced by Interplay, developed by Visual Concepts, published by Acclaim Entertainment|Acclaim Entertainment, Inc.|
|Virtual Pool||1995||DOS, Mac, PS1, Win||Billiards game, developed by Celeris|
|Virtual Deep Sea Fishing]||1999||Win|
|VR Baseball 99||1998||PS1|
|VR Baseball 2000||1998||Win|
|VR Sports Powerboat Racing||1998||PS1, Win||Racing, developed by Promethean Designs Ltd.|
|Wasteland||1988||AppII, C64, DOS||Role-playing video game, internally developed|
DOS, 3DO (Unreleased)
|Published by Interplay, developed by Intelligent Games.|
|Whiplash||1995||DOS||Known outside North America as Fatal Racing|
|Wild 9||1998||PS1||Developed by Shiny Entertainment|
|Y2K: The Game||1999||Win||Developed by Runecraft, Ltd.|
|Zeitgeist: Laser Fighter||1998||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft|
|Zero Divide: Techno Warrior||1998||Win||Windows version developed by Kinesoft|